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Full text of "The principles and rules of the Moravian congregation at Salem, N.C. : with appendices"

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Adopted by Congregation Council, May gth, i8gj. 
Approved by Prov, Elders Conference, May nth, i8gj. 






1. Historical Note 3 

2. Chapter I. Doctrine 6 

3. Chapter II. The Brotherly Agreement 8 

4. Chapter III. Government 11 

5. Chapter IV. Ministers 16 

6. Chaptsr V. Rules and Regulations 18 

7. The Charter..... '. 21 

8. Appendix I. Outline of the History of the 

Moravian Church 27 

9. Appendix II. Moravian Missions 29 

10. Applndix III. The Southern District 30 

11. Appendix IV. The Salem Congregtaion 31 

12. Appendix V. Special Services and Church 

Customs of the Salem Congregation 33 


The Unitas Fratrum, or Church of the United Brethren, 
commonly called Moravians, arose in the countries of Bohemia 
and Moravia, which are now provinces of the Austrian Empire. 

This part of Europe was originally Christianized by mission- 
aries of the Greek Church. Hence, there always existed a freer 
Christian spirit, and a warmer attachment to the use of the native 
tongue in God's worship, than was the case in countries where the 
Gospel was first proclaimed by the Roman Catholic Church. 

Of this freer and more Biblical tendency, the great reformer, 
John Hus, was an eminent example. It was his earnest effort to 
bring back the corrupted Church of his times to the rules of the 
Holy Bible. His fervent labors were closed by his heroic martyr- 
dom at Constance, July 6th, 1415. 

About forty years after the death of John Hus, a number of 
his earnest-mindeci followers, hopeless of any complete reform in 
the old national Church, banded themselves together, in north- 
eastern Bohemia, under the name oi Brethren^ In 1467 they 
received the episcopacy from the Waldensians, and were then con- 
stituted as an independent Church, bearing the name of " The 
Uiiited Brethren. ' ' 

For more than one hundred and fifty years, this earliest of the 
Protestant Churches flourished greatly, though amid frequent and 
bitter persecutions. They translated the Holy Scriptures, pub- 
lished many hymns and other religious writings, instituted schools, 
and were known for the purity of their Christian life. They stood 
on friendly terms with Luther at Wittemberg, and with Calvin and 
his fellow-laborers at Strasburg and Geneva. Having spread into 
Poland, as well as Bohemia and Moravia, this Church of the United 
Brethren bid fair to become the National Protestant Church of 
these, at that time, prosperous countries. 


But, in the Thirty Years' War, the Protestant faith was crushed 
under the iron hand of Austria, animated by the counsel and as- 
sisted by the persevering efforts of the Jesuits. Some of the lead- 
ing brethren perished by the sword, many were exiled, and the 
remnant was gradually forced back into the Roman Catholic com- 

A century later the preaching of a Moravian, Christian David 
by name, was the means of a powerful awakening in certain Mora- 
vian villages among the descendants of the Ancient Brethren. 
Desirous of serving God in the way in which their fathers had 
done, they fled Irom their native land, and found refuge on the 
estates of a Saxon nobleman, Count Zinzendorf 

This young and deeply pious Count interested himself strongly 
in the Moravian exiles, and, at the sacrifice of his worldly honors 
and estates, became their leader through the followmg forty years, 
until his death, in 1760. 

A remarkably deep and blessed outpouring of the Spirit, on 
August 13th, 1727, confirmed the grace which the exiles had already 
received. Filled with a fervent love for Christ they desired to 
testify to Him both at home and abroad. This led to the begin- 
ning of the missionary work of the Moravians among the heathen 
in 1732, which is still their chief enterprise, carried on in every 
great division of the globe. 

The desire of the Moravians to bring the Gospel to the Ameri- 
can Indians served as a main motive for their settlement in this 
country. The central Northern settlement at Bethlehem was formed 
in 1 74 1. The Moravians having emigrated to North Carolina in 
1753, the settlement of Salem was begun in 1766. 

In 1735, the episcopacy of the Bohemian Brethren was trans- 
ferred to the Renewed Moravian Church by the two surviving 
bishops of the ancient line, and gradually the Church was consti- 
tuted into its present form of government. The supreme control, 
under Christ, is exercised by its Synods. During the intervals 
between Synods, Conferences of three or more brethren conduct 
the affairs of the Church. 

The Moravian belief consists of the simple evangelical faith on 
which the Protestant Churches are substantially agreed. They 
hold that the Son of God shed His blood on the cross for sinners, 
that they might be forgiven through faith in Him, and, when for- 
given, might exercise their faith in good works, and thus become 
ready for heaven. 


From the earliest times the Church of the Brethren has laid 
more stress on the development of Christian life than upon the 
working out of the minuter varieties of doctrine. 

Several peculiarities, such as Love-feasts, after the example of 
the Apostolic Church, and an Easter morning confession of the 
risen Savior in their graveyards, exist and are greatly esteemed in 
many of the Moravian churches. 

Other peculiarities, such as marriage by lot, a common house- 
keeping, exclusive settlements of Moravians,^ and the like, pre- 
vailed for a time, but having fulfilled their purpose, especially dur- 
ing the hardships of early colonial settlement, have long since been 
given up. 

The present form of doctrine, practice and government of the 
Moravian Church, as represented in the life of its cen'ral congre- 
gation in the South, that of Salem, N. C, will be found set forth 
in the following pages. 




The General Synod of the Church of the United Brethren has 
laid down the following Doctrinal Principles : 

1. The Fotmdation of our Dodriue. 

The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are and 
shall remain the only rule of our faith and practice. We venerate 
them as God's Word, which he spake to mankind of old time in 
the Prophets and, at last, in His Son and by his Apostles, to in- 
struct us unto salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. We are 
convinced that all truths that declare the will of God for our salva- 
tion are fully contained therein. 

2. The Chief Substance of our Doctriyie. 

The Renewed Brethren's Church has, from the beginning, 
regarded as her chief doctrine this truth : "Jesus Christ is the 
propitiation for our sins ; and not for ours only, but also for the 
sins of the whole world." — (I.John, ii 2.) "For he hath made 
him to be sin for us who knew no sin ; that we might be made the 
righteousness of God in him." — II Cor., v. 21.), or, as we sing in 
one of our hymns — 

"Whosoever believeth in Christ's redemption, 
Will find free grace and a complete exemption 
From serving sin !" 

With this our leading doctrine, the following facts and truths, 
clearly attested by Holy Scripture, are linked in essential connec- 
tion and, with it, form our understanding of the Gospel : 

{a) The doctrine of the total depravity of our human 7iature ; 
i. e. , that since the Fall there is no health in man, and that he has 
no power left by which to save himself (John iii, 6 ; Rom. iii, 23 ; 
Rom. vii, 18 ; Rom. i, 18 — 32 ; Rom. iii, 9-18 ; Ephes. ii, 9-1S. 


{b) The doctrine of the love of God, the Father, to the falleii 
human race, according to which He " chose us in Christ before the 
foundation of the world," and "so loved the world that he gave 
his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not 
perish but have eternal life." (Eph. i., 3. 4 ; Ephes. ii., 4 ; John 
iii., 16 ; I John iv., 9.) 

{c) The doctrine of the real Godhead and the real humanity 
of fesus Christ ; i. e., that the only begotten Son of God, He by 
whom all things in heaven and earth were created, forsook the 
glory he had with the Father before the world was, and took upon 
himself our flesh and blood, that in all things he might be made 
like unto his brethren, yet without sin. (I John i., 1-3; John i., 
14 ; John xvii., 5 ; Phil, ii., 6, 7 ; Hebr. ii., 14, 17 ; Hebr. iv. , 15 ; 
Col. i., 17-19; I John v., 20) 

{d^ The doctrine of our Reconciliatioyi with God and our 
Justification before Him through the Sacrifice of Jesus Chi^ist ; i. e., 
that ' ' Christ was delivered up for our trespasses and was raised for 
our justification," and that alone by faith in him " we have through 
his blood forgiveness of sin," peace with God," and freedom 
from the service of sin. (Rom. iii., 24, 25 ; Rom. v., i ; I Cor. 
i., 30 ; Hebr. ii., 17 ; Hebr. xi., 12 ; I Peter i., 18, 19 ; I John i., 
18, 19 ; I John i., 9 ; H Cor. v., 18, 19.) 

((?) The doctrine of the Holy Ghost a7id the Operations of 
His Grace ; i. e. , that without him we are unable to know the 
truth ; that it is he who leads us to Christ by working in us the 
knowledge of sin and faith in Jesus, and that he " beareth witness 
with our spirit that we are the children of God." (John xvi., 8-1 1, 
13, 14; I Cor. xii., 3; Rom. viii., 16.) ■ 

(/) The doctrine of Good Works as the Fruit of the Spirit ; 
i. e., that in them faith manifests itself as a living, acting power, 
which induces us, out of love and gratitude to him who died for 
us, willingly to follow the commandments of God. (John xix., 15 ; 
Rom. vi., 11-14 ; I Cor. vi., 20 ; Gal. v., 6, 22-24 ; I John v., 3-5 ; 
Ephes. ii., 8-10; James ii., 17.) 

{g) The doctrine of the Fellowship of Believers with One 
Another ; i. e., that they are all one in Christ Jesus, the Head of 
his body, and are all members one of another. (John xvii., 21 ; 
Matt, xxiii., 8 ; Ephes. iv., 4.) 


{h) The doctrine of the Second Coming of the Lord in Glory 
and of the Resurrection of the Dead, unto Life or unto fudgment. 
(Acts i., II ; John vi. , 40 ; John xi., 25, 26 ; John iii., 36 ; John v., 
25-29 ; I Thess. iv., 14-17.) 

While we do not draw up and set forth these truths and our 
acceptance of them in a strictly formulated creed, our apprehension 
of the chief substance of Christian doctrine has found, in a special 
way, its expression in what has been solemnly declared by our 
Church, year by year, for more than a hundred years past, in our 
Litany on Easter morning. 

I. The fundamental object of our religious union is to con- 
stitute a Church of Jesus Christ in which the pure Wor d of ^ od 
is preach ed, tjie sacraments are duly administered., pnd Christian 

2. As members of the Church of United Brethren, commonly 
called Moravians, we acknowledge the Holy Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments to contain everything essential to salvation 
and to be the only rule of our faith and practice. 

3. We recognize, as a true member of Christ's body, the 
Church, (every one who, through the Holy Ghost, has experienced 

the new birth; Hence, we regard all children of God as our breth- 
ren in Christ, loving them sincerely and heartily. We decidedly 
disclaim all sectarian animosities, arising from diversity of views on 
points of doctrine, discipline, or church-government. We desire 
to live in cordial fellowship with the members of all evangelical 

4. Esteeming it a great privilege to meet together for the 
worship of God and for mutual edification, we will be faithful in 
attending our Church services, "not forgetting the assembling of 
ourselves together." (Hebr. x., 25.) 



discipline is maintained. 


5- We consider ourselves bound faithfully to provide a suffi- 
cient and suitable support for our ministers and their families ; and 
we will also bear a part in defraying all other expenses connected 
with the service of the congregation. 

6. As members of the Moravian Church we consider ourselves 
in duty bound to contribute to the Causes of the District to which 
we belong, and of the Brethren's Unity at large. 

7. We recognize our children to be the property of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, purchased with his precious blood in order that they 
might be brought up in his nurture and admonition. (Ephes. v. , 4.) 
Hence, it is expected of parents to pray for their children, train 
them in the commandments and love of our Saviour, guard them 
against what might prove hurtful to their souls, gather them in 
family devotions, and set them a consistent Christian example. 
We further regard it the duty of parents that they cause their chil- 
dren punctually to attend school, religious instruction and church 
services ; that they provide them with suitable employment at home 
and accustom them to habits of order, decorum and diligence in 
the business of life. 

8. We will endeavor, in true, brotherly love, to serve and aid 
one another ; to bear with and forgive one another ; mutually to 
exercise meekness, humility and becoming respect, and carefully 
to avoid back-biting, slandering or other uncharitable practices, 

9. As we are called, through the grace of God, to be children 
of peace, we will follow after peace with all men, carefully endeav- 
oring to obey the precepts of our Saviour : Whatsoever ye would 
that men should do to you, do ye even so to them ;" and bearing 
in mind the important charge: "Love your enemies, bless them 
that curse you, and pray for them that despitefully use you and 
persecute you." 

10. We recognize the duty of relieving the necessities of all 
such members as may, through age, sickness or other afflictions, 
have become destitute and unable to maintain themselves. We 
likewise assume the obligation of so providing for the education of 
destitute orphans in the congregation, that they may become use- 
ful members of socifety and capable of procuring for themselves an 
honest livelihood. 

11. With regard to dress and domestic arrangements, we will 
live within our means, and will abstain from anything which might 
rightly be regarded as unworthy of a child of God. 


12. We consider ourselves in duty bound to provide things 
honest in the sight of men as well as in the sight of God. We will, 
therefore, endeavor to be " not slothful in business, fervent in spirit, 
serving the Lord," (Rom. xii. ii.), and we will steadily discoun- 
tenance the sin of habitual idleness. 

13. We will not forget to hallow the Lord's day. We will 
make a faithful use of it as a day of Christian edification and Chris- 
tian usefulness. The carrying on of worldly business or labor, 
other than works of charity or necessity ; the frequenting of places 
of worldly resort, or anything which interferes with edification and 
attendance on divine worship is wholly inadmissible. 

14. Regarding intemperance in the use of strong drink as a 
most pernicious and sinful practice, rendering men in an especial 
degree the servants of sin, we will endeavor to remove from among 
us everything that can furnish occasion for this evil, and give timely 
admonition and warning to those who may be exposing themselves 
to temptation. 

15. We will carefully beware of all books and publications 
which are opposed to the Bible, or treat it irreverently, or of such 
as have an immoral tendency. We will abstain from participation 
in such amusements as have an injurious or, at least, a question- 
able tendency with respect to Christian morals. 

16. In case misunderstandings or differences arise among any 
of the members they shall first, according to the commandment of 
Christ (Matt, xviii., 15-17.) endeavor to come to an amicable 
agreement aud equitable settlement among themselves. Should 
they fail in so doing, the persons at variance shall select some 
other members of the congregation to act as mediators ; and, if the 
difficulty cannot be so arranged to mutual satisfaction, the case 
shall be referred to the Board of Elders for brotherly investigation 
and decision. In case, however, the point in dispute should render 
a resort to the courts of justice indispensable, everything at variance 
with our character as brethren is to be avoided. 

17. Should any one be overtaken in a fault (Gal. vi., i.) we 
will endeavor to restore such an one in the spirit of meekness ; 
and when, on committing an error, we are admonished and re- 
proved, we will, by the grace of God, receive reproof thankfully, 
and strive to amend, considering all such admonitions as great 
benefits conferred upon us. » 

1 1 

1 8. Inasmuch as it behooves every member of the Church in 
all things to walk worthy of the Gospel, so, also, shall those who 
give offence by their conduct, and refuse correction, be, after re- 
peated admonition and reproof, excluded from church fellowship 
according to the rule : Put away from among yourselves that 
wicked person." 

19, If, therefore, any member, in word or deed, act c6ntrary 
to the rules and regulations of the Church, and, by his example, 
tempt others to do the same ; transgressing the laws of the country ; 
overreaching his neighbor in trade ; taking part in gambling or 
lotteries : being guilty of lying, backbiting, and calumny ; giving 
himself up to drunkenness ; neglecting to satisfy his creditors ; 
committing the sins of cursing and swearing, fornication and adul- 
tery, or other manifest works of the flesh, as enumerated in Gal. v., 
19-21, — such an one can no longer be considered a member of the 




The government of the Brethren's Church, under the supreme 
guidance of the Great Head of his Church, our Lord and Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, is exercised by General Synods. Such a Synod con- 
stitutes, wherever assembled, the body to which pertains the chief 
legislative power for all the general affairs of the Church. 

2. THE unity's elders' CONFERENCE. 

The oversight and direction of the Unity from one General 
Synod to the next, in all those matters which fall within the com- 
petency of the General Synods, is committed to a Board, appointed 
by the General Synod and called the Unity's Elders' Conference, 
or the directing Board of the Protestant Unity of the Brethren. 


This Board acts in the name of and by commission Irom the Gen- 
eral Synods, and is responsible to it for its actions. All other 
Boards, as well as servants of the Unity, by whatsoever power 
appointed, are responsible to this Board, in all matters over which 
the General Synod has jurisdiction. There is, however, this limi- 
tation, that the supervision of the British and American Provinces 
of the Unity devolves solely on the Unity Department of the 
Unity's Elders' Conference. 


The chief direction of all provincial concerns and the power of 
legislating upon them belongs to Provincial Synods. The Ameri- 
can Province is divided into two Provincial Districts, each with its 
Provincial Synod and Provincial Elders' Conference. These Synods 
are specially charged with the duty of examining thoroughly into 
the spiritual as well as temporal condition of the congregations 
within the Province. 


The chief Board of administration in all provincial affairs is 
the Provincial Elders' Conference. The Board is elected by the 
Provincial Synod, and is responsible to that body for its adminis- 


1. The Congregation Council is composed of all brethren, 
communicant members of the congregation, who have attained to 
the age of twenty-one years, and have subscribed to the rules and 
regulations of the congregation, and have paid their church dues. 
(See Sect. 7 of the Charter). The act of subscribing to the rules 
can only take place in the presence of the Chairman or of the 
Board of Elders, who shall add the date of the signature. 

2. The sisters of the congregation may be present at the 
meetings of the Council, and shall participate in its proceedings 
as far as the terms of the Charter permit. 

3. The pastor, or in case there be more than one, shall pre- 
side at all meetings of the Council. In case of his absence, the 
Congregation Council shall appoint a Chairman pro tern. All meet- 
ings shall be announced on two occasions of public worship. It 


shall be the duty of the Congregation Council to elect the delegates 
to the Provincial Synod and the District Conference ; the Trustees, 
the elective members of the Board of Elders and of the School 
Board, and all other officers and boards of the congregation not 
otherwise provided for. 

4. The Board of Elders shall have authority at any time to 
convene a special meeting of the Congregation Council. Upon 
application of the Board of Trustees or ten members of the Coun- 
cil, they shall likewise call a special meeting. 

5. All standing officers elected by the Congregation Council 
shall continue in office until their successors are elected. All elec- 
tions shall be by ballot, and a majority of the votes cast shall be 
necessary to a choice. 

6. All matters w^hich relate to the temporal or spiritual wel- 
fare of the congregation may be discussed in the Council at the 
motion of any member, or by the request of the Board of^Elders 
or the Board of Trustees. 

7. The annual report of the Board of Elders shall be sub- 
mitted to the Council, and the annual accounts of the congregation 
shall all be presented to the Council within three months after the 
close of the fiscal year. 


I. The Board of Elders. 

a. The Board of Elders is composed of the Pastor, or Pastors, 
of the congregation, the Principal of the Salem Female Academy, 
and three other brethren. The number of elected brethren shall 
be increased to six as soon as the Charter has been amended to that 
effect. They shall be not less than thirty years of age and must 
have been members of the congregation not less than five years,. 
They shall serve for three years, and shall be elected in such a 
manner that the term of two will expire with each year. The elec- 
tion shall take place on the first Tuesday in May of every year, 
and shall be the first of the elections at that Council meeting. No 
one shall be a member of the Board of Elders and of the Board 
of Trustees at the same time. 

b. At the meetings of the Board of Elders the Pastor shall 
preside, or if there be several, the Senior Pastor. In case of the 
absence of the presiding officer, the members of the Board shall 
appoint a presiding officer. 

c. It shall be the duty of the Board of Elders : 

1. To watch over the spiritual and moral well-being of the 
congregation as a whole. 

2. To regulate the various meetings for worship. 

3. To determine for what purposes the churches and chapels 
may be used. 

4. To maintain the proper exercise of Church discipline. 

5. To decide upon applications to Church membership and 
dismissals from the same, and also upon names of persons to be 
dropped or to be excluded from the congregation. 

6. To appoint the Superintendents of the Sunday Schools in 
connection with the congregation. 

7. To appoint the organist and the two chief chapel servants, 
one of them being a brother and the other a sister, who, with the 
concurrence of the Board, shall appoint their assistants. 

8. To assist the Pastor in the administration of the church 

9. In general, to carry out in this congregation the principles 
and rules enacted by the proper authorities of the Church of the 
the United Brethren. 

d. All vacancies among the elective officers of the Board shall 
be filled by the remainder of the Board until the next annual 

2. The Board of Trustees. 

a. The Board of Trustees is composed of six brethren, to be 
elected by the Congregation Council. They shall not be less than 
twenty-five years of age, and shall have been communicant mem- 
bers of the congregation not less than three years. Their election 
shall take place on the first Tuesday in May, and shall be so ar- 
ranged that the terms of two of them shall expire each year. At 
the first meeting after each annual election the Board shall organize 
by electing a President, and a Secretary and Treasurer. In case of 
the absence of the presiding officer, the members shall appoint a 
chairman pro tern. 

b. It shall be the duty of the Board of Trustees : 

1. To manage and direct all secular and financial affairs of 
the congregation and the various funds entrusted to its care. 

2. To determine the salaries of the pastor, the assistants, and 
other officers and servants of the congregation. 


3- To fix upon the amount of Church contributions, and 
adopt measures for the punctual payment of the same. In so doings 
they shall require not less than twenty-five cents per month from 
each female member over twenty-one years of age, and not less than 
fifty cents per month from each male member over twenty-one years 
of age, this sum to include lovefeast and communion dues. But 
they shall have the authority to exonerate members, in part or 
altogether, on account of their inability. Members not residing in 
the community of Salem shall pay whatever sum the Trustees 
shall consider as a just due in return for the keeping up of their 

4. To pay or cause to be paid the expenses necessarily in- 
curred by the Board of Elders and of the School Board in the dis- 
charge of their legitimate sphere of duties. 

5. To have charge of the Sisters' House and the Widows' 
House of the congregation. 

6. To take care of the churches and chapels of the congrega- 
tion, in connection with the Advisory Committees appointed by the 
Home church and of the several chapels. 

7. To have the charge and superintendence of the graveyard, 
and the appointment of persons to dig graves and to keep the 
graveyard in proper order. 

c. Any vacancies occurring in the Board shall be filled by the 
remaining members until the next annual election. 

3. The Joint Action of the Board of Elders and of the Board of 


The Board of Elders and the Board of Trustees have each 
their separate sphere of activity and are not to interfere with one 
another in the performance of their particular duties ; one having * 
charge of the spiritual and the other of the temporal concerns of 
the congregation ; yet it is desirable that they should be on terms 
of friendly intercourse, and even confer together in such cases as 
may arise where each Board is interested, or where such mutual 
conference may result for the manifest good of the congregation. 
In cases of disagreement between these two Boards a joint meeting" 
of both may be had and the subject disposed of by a majority of 

4. The School Board. 

a. The School Board is composed of the Pastor, or Pastors, 
of the congregation, the Chairman and also the Treasurer and Sec- 


retary of the Board of Trustees and three other brethren to be 
elected biennially at the Congreg^ation Council convened on the 
first Tuesday in May. 

b. The Board shall have the direction and management of 
the congregation-school for boys. The Pastor, or, if there be more 
than one, the Senior Pastor of the congregation, shall be the presi- 
dent of the Board. In case of the absence of the presiding officer, 
the members of the Board yhall appoint a president pro tern. 

c. It shall be the duty of the Board, 

1. To appoint or elect a Principal of the School who may, 
but need not be one of its members, who shall have charge of the 
School, subject to the direction of the School Board. 

2. To appoint a Head Teacher, or teachers, and assistant 

3. To fix the salaries of the Principal and teachers, and pro- 
vide for the proper maintenance of the School, to regulate the price 
of tuition, and to collect the same. 

4. They shall not, however, incur any extraordinary expenses 
without previous consultation with the Board of Trustees. 

5. To make and enforce rules and regulations for the proper 
government of the School. 

d. All boys eight years of age, or upwards, shall be admitted 
to this School, whose parents, or one of them, are members of this 
congregation, and who shall be willing to submit to the rules and 
regulations of the School. The sons of others, not members, may 
be admitted on such terms and under such rules and regulations as 
the School Board may find expedient. 




I. The Ministers of the Church of the United Brethren are 
Bishops, Presbyters and Deacons. 


The Bishops have been derived from the Ancient Church of 
the United Brethren, and have continued in an uninterrupted line 
of succession within the Church for more than four hundred years. 


It is their exclusive function to ordain the ministers of the Church, 
and they are entitled, as voting members, to attend the General 
Synods of the Brethren's Unity and the Provincial Synods of the 
Province in which they reside. They have no diocesan or confer- 
•ential authority. Their office is a spiritual one, as being in a pecu- 
liar sense, intercessors in the Church of God, and charged to bear 
the interests of the Unity upon their hearts before the Lord. 


The Presbyters are the ministers who have been serving in the 
sacred office for some length of time, and who either have charge 
of a congregation in the ministry of the Word, or are entrusted 
with the direction of any particular branch of Church work. 


The consecration of Deacons is the first degree of consecration 
in the Church. It entitles to the exercise of the ministry of the 
Word and of the sacraments 

2. Pastoral Service. 

The Pastor, or Pastors, and other ordained servants of the 
congregation, whether bishops, presbyters or deacons, conduct 
their office according to the rules laid down by the Synods of the 
Church, and by the congregations in which they serve, as far as 
these rules are conformed to the Principles and Regulations of the 
Brethren's Unity. ♦ 

J. Appointment. 

The exclusive right of appointment of ministers is vested in the 
Provincial Elders' Conference. In case of vacancy, by death or 
otherwise, in the Pastorate, or other ordained service of the con- 
gregatioH, when a brother is appointed by the Provincial Elders' 
Conference, the name of the brother so appointed shall be laid be- 
fore the Board of Elders and then before the Board of Trustees. 
These Boards shall decide whether the brother whose name is laid 
before them shall be accepted or not ; and they may, in behalf of 
the congregation, propose the name of another person, and may 
also request from the P. E. C. the removal of a brother in whom 
confidence has been lost. 




1. All resolutions of the Congregation Council, the Board of 
Elders and the Board of Trustees, not referring merely to their 
current business, but containing permanent regulations, shall be 
submitted for approbation to the Provincial Elders' Conference, 
which shall, however, be at liberty to withhold its sanction only in 
case such resolutions, in the opinion of said Conference, are at 
variance with the principles and constitution of the Church. 

2. Persons desiring to become communicant members of the 
congregation will receive such catechetical instruction as their cir- 
cumstances may require. When they have been thus prepared for 
Church membership their names shall be submitted to the Board of 
Elders, who shall have full power to grant or refuse their applica- 
tion to be baptized or confirmed. 

3. Persons who have previously been full members of another 
denomination, shall have their certificates of dismissal from their 
former Church, or, in case they cannot obtain them, the proper 
evidence of their previous membership, laid before the Board of 
Elders. If their request to become members of this congregation 
has been granted by the Board of Elders, they shall be received at 
a communion service, with the right hand of fellowship. Their 
children, under twenty-one years of age, if not objectionable in 
character, or not communicants of some other Church, shall be 
received into the privileges of non-communicants in the congre- 

4. Until the Chapels become separate Moravian churches 
their membership shares in the privileges and duties of the Salem 
congregation, and they are counted as members of this congre- 

5. Members of other Moravian congregations, having been 
regularly dismissed from their churches, shall, after having been 
accepted by the Board of Elders, have their names announced at 
a communion service as being henceforth members of this con- 


6. Members are expected to bring their infant children to be 
baptized as soon after their birth as convenient. Such children 
become incorporated, by the sacrament of Baptism, into the visible 
Church of Christ, and are to be regarded as non-communicant 
members of the Church until they have been confirmed, unless they 
should, by their misconduct in riper years, forfeit these privileges. 

7. The Lovefeast regulations are as follows : 

a. Lovefeasts are private meetings, intended only for those 
whose names are found on our Church catalogue, or are members 
of other Moravian churches. 

b. Communicants of sister denominations, and such only, 
may be invited to these occasions. 

c In the case of a married couple, of which one only is a 
member of the Church, the other shall likewise have the privilege 
of attending the lovefeasts. 

d. Invitations to the lovefeast must be issued through the 
pastor, and according to his best judgment. 

e. A lovefeast shall annually be held for all those brethren 
and sisters who are regularly engaged in the service of the congre- 

f. In the case of children in the Home Sunday School and 
pupils in the Salem Female Academy, existing customs of admis- 
sion to Lovefeasts shall be observed, as far as the Board of Elders 
shall find them practicable and desirable. 

8. The regulations for Funerals are as follows : 

a. The chief sexton will make a list of male members up to 
sixty-five years, from which he will select those who shall assist, in 
their due order, in carrying the mortal remains of their brethren 
and sisters to the church and graveyard. 

b. Interments in the graveyard are restricted to the following 
classes : Members of the congregation ; the husband or wife in 
cases where the other partner is a member ; members of other Mo- 
ravian churches visiting in Salem, or such Moravians as were for- 
merly connected with our congregation ; boarding pupils in Salem 
Female Academy, who, for the time of their residence are consid- 
ered as connected with the congregation ; birth-right members 
over 21 years of age, not communicants in other denominations, 
provided their dues have been kept up. 

c. Ten dollars shall be paid for the privilege of burial in the 
graveyard, in cases where the person was husband or wife of a 


communicant member. This sum shall be additional to the other 
expenses which are customary in the case of members. 

d. The tombstones shall be recumbent, and their size shall 
not exceed 20 b}«4Si^ inches. 

9. Members who, for a considerable time, have entirely neg- 
lected the ordinances and interests of the congregation, and, with- 
out being excused by the Board of Trustees, have neglected or 
refused to contribute to the support of the congregation, shall be 
regarded by the Board of Elders as having withdrawn from the 
congregation, and their names shall be omitted from the list of 
members, and, where it is practicable, they shall be notified of the 
fact through the Board of Elders. 

10. Members who have been excluded shall be duly notified, 
and shall, in all cases, have the right of appeal to the Provincial 
Elders' Conference. 

11. Whenever the interests of the congregation, at any future 
time, shall render it expedient to alter or amend, or add to any of 
these present rules and regulations, such alterations, amendments, 
or additions, if adopted by a majority of two-thirds of all the votes 
cast in the Congregation Council, shall be of equal weight and obli- 
gation as though they had been literally embodied in these present 
rules and regulations : provided, the vote on such alterations or 
amendments is not taken in the same meeting in which they were 
introduced, but at some subsequent meeting of the Congregation 
Council expressly convened for that purpose ; diVid, provided further, 
that all such proposed alterations and amendments have obtained 
the sanction of the Provincial Elders' Conference. 




Section i. The General Assembly of North Carolifia do enact : 
That the members of the Congregation of United Brethren, com- 
monly called Moravians, of the town of Salem and its vicinity, be 
and the same are hereby created and erected into one body politic 
and corporate in deed and in law, by the name, style and title of 
" The Congregation of United Brethren of Salem and its vicinity." 

Sec. 2. That the said corporation by the same name, style and 
title shall have perpetual succession, and be able to sue and be sued, 
to plead and be impleaded in all courts of law and elsewhere, and 
shall be able and capable in law and equity to take, purchase, hold 
and receive to them and their successors in trust for, and also to 
the use of said congregation, any lands, tenements, goods and chat- 
tels of whatsoever kind, nature or quality, real, personal or mixed, 
which are now, or shall, or may at any time hereafter become the 
property of said congregation or body politic by purchase, gift 
grant, bargain, sale, conveyance, devise, bequest or otherwise, from 
any person or persons whomsoever, capable of making the same, 
and the same to grant, bargain, sell, improve or dispose of for the 
use and benefit of the said congregation : Provided, That it shall 
not be lawful for said corporation to hold and enjoy at any time 
more than sixteen hundred acres of land, except such lands as shall 
be purchased at sales, where the same may be necessary to secure 
any debt due to said congregation, nor to appropriate any of the 
surplus funds of said corporation to any other than charitable, or 
religious, or such other purposes as shall be expressly specified in 
this act. 

Sec. 3. No misnomer of said corporation, or their successors, 
shall defeat or annul any gift, grant, devise or bequest to or from 
said corporation : Provided, The intent of the party or parties shall 
sufficiently appear upon the face of the gift, grant, will or other 
writing, whereby any estate or interest was intended to pass to or 
from the said corporation. 

Sec. 4. The secular business of said corporation shall be con- 
ducted by six trustees, of whom four shall be a quorum, and who 
shall choose a President, and may appoint a Secretary and a Treas- 
urer, to serve for the ensuing year, either from among themselves, 
or from among the members of the said congregation qualified to 
be elected as trustees, according to the fifth section of this act. The 


Secretary shall keep true and correct minutes of the acts and pro- 
ceedings of the Board of Trustees ; and the Treasurer shall receive, 
disburse and account for all moneys coming into his hands, belong- 
ing to the said corporation, and shall, if required by the said trus- 
tees, give security for the faithful performance of the trust reposed 
in him, and shall have his accounts annually settled by the trustees, 
to be laid before the Congregation at a general meeting. The said 
trustees may likewise appoint such other officers, as they may from 
time to time deem necessary, for the proper management of the 
secular affairs of the Congregation, and they may allow such com- 
pensation to all officers appointed by them for the services rendered 
as they may deem just and reasonable ; and the said trustees may 
also at any time remove any of the officers appointed by them, and 
appoint others to supply their places when, in their opinion, the 
interests of the Congregation require it. The said Trustees shall 
also fix upon the amount of contribution, to be paid regularly, 
yearly, half-yearly, or quarterly, by every member of the Congre- 
gation, of twenty-one years of age and upwards, at the rate of not 
less than fifty cents and not more than ten dollars annually from 
any one member, and collect the same ; and shall have power to 
exonerate members on account of their disability to pay, if they 
deem it just and expedient ; and they shall annually enquire, ascer- 
tain and report to the Board of Elders, whether any member or 
members have failed or refused to pay their contribution within the 
current year, on which report the Board of Elders shall take such 
action, and make such order as shall by them b*e deemed expedient 
and right. 

Sec. 5. The following named persons shall fill the said office of 
Trustees until others be elected, as hereinafter provided, namely : 
J. W. Hunter and Henry W. Fries, to serve till the first Tuesday 
of May, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six ; Edward T. 
Blum and Augustus F. Pfohl, to serve till the first Tuesday of May, 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and John D. Siewers 
and John G. Sides, to serve till the first Tuesday of May, one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-four, on which day, and on the 
same day annually, thereafter, the members of the said congrega- 
tion, qualified to vote by the seventh section of this act, shall elect 
from their body two persons as Trustees for the term of three years, 
in place of those whose term shall have expired : Provided, That no 
person shall be eligible as a Trustee, who is not at the time of his 
election, a citizen of this State, and shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and who shall not have been at least three 
years preceding his election, a communicant member of this church, 
and shall not have paid his annual stated contribution, if any was 
collected, within one year next preceding his election, according to 
his ability ; nor shall any person hold and exercise the office of a 
Trustee after he shall have ceased to be a member of the said Congre- 
gation ; and in case of vacancy by death, resignation, disability, le- 
fusal or neglect to serve or otherwise, the vacancy or vacancies shall 
be supplied by the remaining Trustees until the next annual elections. 


Sec. 6. If the Congregation fail on the day of the annual elec- 
tion to elect new members, as provided, this corporation shall noi 
be dissolved, but the outgoing members shall hold over until 
their successors are elected at a meeting called, as provided for in 
section seventh. 

Sec. 7. Every male communicant member of said Congregation 
who shall have attained the age of twenty-one years, and shall have 
paid, within one year, his stated contribution toward the discharge 
of the yearly expenses of the Congregation, if any was collected, 
unless he became twenty-one years of age after any contribution 
was due ; and also all ordained ministers being full members of this 
• Congregation, and no other, shall be entitled to vote at the elec- 
tions of said Congregation, or at any meeting of the said Congre- 
gation ; and all elections shall be by ballot. All notices of elections 
and meetings of the Congregation shall be published from the pulpit 
or desk on an occasion of public worship, or in such other way as 
the Board of Elders shall direct ; and in all cases a majority of the 
duly qualified voters shall govern at meetings of the Congregation ; 
and all meetings of the congregation shall, in the first place, be 
called and ordered by the Board of Elders ; and upon application 
of the Board of Trustees, or ten or more voting members of the 
Congregation, the Board of Elders shall call a meeting. 

Sec. 8. The Board of Elders shall be composed of the Minister 
or Ministers of the congregation, the President of Salem F^emale 
Academy, and three Elders, a majority of whom shall constitute a 
quorum, of which Board the senior minister or pastor shall be Pres- 
ident ; and the said members of the Board of Elders shall choose 
from their number a Secretary ; and in the absence of the President, 
a chairman pro tern. Besides the above named official members of 
the Board of Elders, the following named persons shall fill the said 
office of Elders, until others be elected, as hereinafter provided, viz : 
Jacob L. Fulkerson to serve until the first Tuesday of May, one 
, thousand eight hundred and seventy-six ; Edward W. Lineback, to 
serve until the first Tuesday of May, one thousand eight hundred 
and seventy-five ; and J. Nathaniel Blum, to serve until the first 
Tuesday of May, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, on 
which day, and on the same day annually thereafter, the members 
of the said congregation, qualified to vote by the seventh section of 
this act, shall elect from their body one person as Elder for the term 
of three years, in the place of the one whose term shall have ex- 
pired. The election for Elders are to be held at the same time and 
place, and in the same manner provided for and directed in section 
5th of this act, for the election of Trustees. If the congregation 
fail, on the day of the annual election, to elect a new member, as 
provided, the outgoing member shall hold over until his successor 
is elected at a meeting called, as provided for in section seventh : 
Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to 
permit the same person serving as Trustee and Elder at the same 
time, and Provided further, that in case of vacancy by death, or 


otherwsc, among the said Elders as elected, the remaining mem- 
bers of the Board of Elders may supply the vacancy until the next 
election from the members duly qualified ; and provided further, 
that no one shall be elected an Elder who is not thirty or more 
years of age, and a member of the Moravian Church of five years' 
standing, and himself qualified to vote according to the seventh sec- 
tion of this act. 

Sec. 9. No person or persons shall be minister or ministers, or 
assistant minister or assistant ministers of this congregation, or shall 
be allowed to act as such, who shall not have been from time to 
time duly appointed by the proper authorities, according to the 
recognized rules and principles of the Church of the United Breth- 
ren and the Southern District of said Church in the United States 
of America ; nor shall any minister or assistant minister continue 
to officiate any longer in this congregation, unless with the consent 
of said authorities, after his appointment shall have been revoked 
by the said duly constituted authorities of the said Church of United 
Brethren ; but whenever, in case of a vacancy by death or other- 
wise, in the pastoral offices of the congregation, a person duly qual- 
ified has been appointed by the proper authorities of the Church of 
the United Brethren as above directed, the name of the person so 
appointed shall be by the proper authorities laid before the Board 
of Elders, and then before the Board of Trustees, and these Boards 
shall decide whether the person whose name is laid before them 
shall be accepted or not ; and the said Trustees and their succes- 
sors shall at all times and forever hereafter make suitable provisions 
for a decent and adequate salary of the ministers or assistant minis- 
ters duly appointed as hereinbefore directed, and shall in no case 
prevent the said ministers or assistant ministers, in any meeting- 
house or houses of worship belonging to said congregation, from 
expounding and explaining God's Holy Word, nor from executing 
the discipline of the Church of the United Brethren and adminis- 
tering the sacraments therein, according to the doctrine and disci- 
pline of the said Church of the United Brethren in the United States 
of America. 

Sec. 10. The said Board of Elders shall have full power and 
authority at all times to ordain and establish such by-laws, ordi- 
nances, rules and regulations as shall be necessary and proper for 
their own government , and said Board shall be the executive body, 
to carry out the principles and rules now in force or which may from 
time to time be enacted by the proper authorities of the Church of 
the United Brethren in the United States of America, for regulatim^ 
the discipline of the members of the congregation and for promot- 
ing religion in the same : Provided, that all the acts of the said 
Board of Elders shall be conformable to and in no wise inconsistent 
with the principles and constitution of the Church of the United 
Brethren in the United States of America : And provided further, 
that nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prevent the said 
Board of Elders from expelling any member according to the rules 
and regulations of the Church of United Brethren of the United 


States of America, and by such expulsion depriving him or her of 
all the rights and privileges hereby granted, subject, nevertheless, 
to an appeal to the Board of Brethren, who, according to the rules 
and constitution of the Southern District of the Church of the 
United Brethren in the United States of America, are or may be 
appointed to superintend the general concerns of the said District 
of the Church. 

Sec. II. The said Trustees and their successors shall have the 
control over and management of all the secular and pecuniary af- 
fairs of said congregation ; the care of the house or houses of wor- 
ship, parsonage or parsonages, school house or school houses, grave- 
yard, and all other church property, now or hereafter belonging to 
the said congregation, and all other temporal concerns and busi- 
ness of the congregation, and they and their successors shall have 
full power to enact and enforce such by-laws and ordinances as they 
shall think proper for their own government, and for the regulation 
and transaction of the secular business of the congregation, and 
also to make, have and to use a common seal, and the same to 
break, alter and renew at pleasure, and all bonds, notes, judgments 
and mortgages to be given, made and executed, and all deeds for 
any real estate sold at any time, shall be made, signed, sealed, exe- 
cuted and delivered by the President of the Board of Trustees, on 
order of said board ; and the said Trustees and their successors 
shall have full power to sell and make title as above directed to all 
lots or parcels of land sold by them : Provided, That a majority of 
the qualified voters of said congregation present at a general meet- 
ing, or special meeting called for the purpose, have given their 
assent to such sale ; and the said Trustees and their successors shall 
not dispose of, alien, sell, or in any way encumber the other real 
estate belonging to the said congregation, except in such cases as 
herein specified, nor contract any debt or debts exceeding the sum 
of one thousand dollars without the assent and concurrence of the 
majority of the qualified voters of the said congregation present at 
a meeting to be held for that purpose : Ayid provided further, That 
said rules, b5''-laws and ordinances, and all the acts of the said 
Trustees, framed and enacted and promulgated, shall not be con- 
trary to this charter, nor the constitution and laws of this State, or 
of the United States, and shall be in conformity to the rules and 
principles of the Church of the United Brethren in the United 
States of America, and not in any wise inconsistent with the same. 

Sec. 12. The rents, profits and interests of the real, personal 
and mixed estate of the said congregation and corporation, shall, 
by the said trustees and their successors, from time to time, be ap- 
plied and used for the maintenance and support of the gospel min- 
istry in said congregation, for maintaining and repairing their 
church or churches, parsonage houses, school houses, burial 
grounds, or other houses and buildings, which now do, or here- 
after shall belong to the said congregation and corporation, and 
for educational, home and foreign missionary, or such other pious 


and charitable uses as shall be thought proper by the said trustees 
and their successors, or a quorum of them, or as may be specified 
in this act. 

Sec. 13. No enumeration of powers, privileges and duties 
herein contained, shall be so construed as to exclude others not 
enumerated, which are necessary to the proper fulfillment of the 
design and purpose of this act, and not inconsistent with its express 
provisions and limitations. 

Sec. 14. This act shall be in force from and after its ratifi- 

In General Assembly read three times on this 31st day of Jan- 
uary, A. D. 1874. 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 
Preside?it of the Senate. 



Raleigh, N. C, May 21st, 1874. 

I, William H. Howerton, Secretary of State, hereby certify 
that the foregoing is a true copy from the original act on file in this 

Wm. H. Howerton, Secretary. 




Moravia and Bohemia, once an independent kingdom, now provinces 
of the Austrian Empire, were Christianized in the 9th century by the two 
Greek missionaries, Cyril and Methodius. Gradually, however, the Church 
in this country came under the control of the Roman hierarchy. 

The reformer, John Hus, who, like a number of his earnest predeces- 
sors, sought to bring the National Church back to the Scriptural standard, 
was burned to death at Constance on July 6th, 1415. 

After years of bloody war between Bohemia and Germany, the more 
spiritual minded of the followers of John Hus, in 1457, banded themselves 
together, in the retired barony of Lititz, in North-east Bohemia, to lead a 
united Christian life. 

In 1467, their separation from the National Church was consummated 
by the decree of the Synod of Lhota and by the consecration of three 
bishops at the hands of Stephen and his Waldensian colleague, the last 
of an Austrian Waldensian line created at the Council of Basle, in 1434. 
The Church of the ** United Brethren " now spread widely in Bohemia 
and Moravia. 

In 1505, the first Moravian Hymn Book and Catechism were printed. 
In 1512, the Brethren entered into relations with Luther, and later, into 
correspondence with the Swiss reformers. In 1549, the first churches were 
founded in Poland, and the U7iitas Fratrum henceforth consisted of three 
flourishing divisions in Bohemia, Moravia and Poland. From 1579 to 1593, 
the whole Bible was translated from the original into the Bohemian. It is 
called "The Kraliz Bible." In 1616, the General Synod of the Unitas 
Fratrum at Zerawitz adopted the Ratio Disciplina, which gives an account 
of the life and arrangements of the Ancient Brethren's Unity, of highest 
value to their descendants. 

Alter many persecutions, successfully borne, the Church of the United 
Brethren was utterly rooted out by Ferdinand of Austria, during the 
Thirty Years' War. The leaders perished on the scaffold, and more than 
30,000 families were exiled from Bohemia and Moravia. In Poland the 
Brethren were gradually amalgamated with the Reformed Church. 

Bishop John Amos Comenius, the famous educator, by his personal 
influence, his writings, and his care to maintain the episcopacy, preserved 
the Unitas Fratrum from utter extinction. 

A revival among the descendants of the Brethren in several Moravian 
villages, under the preaching of Christian David, from 1722 to 1727, led to 


the flight of a number of them into Saxony. They were kindly received 
by the Count Nicholas Louis Von Zinzendorf on his estates, and there 
founded the town of Herrnhut. On August 13th, 1727, they were so pow- 
erfully blessed by an outpouring of the Holy Ghost that in a few years 
their testimony for Christ was spread into distant parts of the world. 

Their missions among the heathen commenced in 1732, when Leonard 
Dober and David Nitschman started on foot, each with six dollars in his 
pocket, and resolved, if necessary, to be sold as slaves in order to bring 
the Gospel to the heathen negroes on the Island of St. Thomas. 

It having been agreed, contrary to the original wishes of Count Zin- 
zendorf, that the Moravians should not become Lutherans, but continue 
their separate Church organization, the episcopate was transferred from 
the Ancient to the Modern Moravian Church by Bishop Daniel Ernst 
Jablonsky and Christian Sitkovius at Berlin on March 13th, 1735. The first 
Bishop in the new line was David Nitschman, one of the Moravian exiles^ 
On May 12th, 1749, the Moravian episcopate was recognized by Act of 
British Parliament. 

The Moravian Church in America commenced with the arrival of ten 
Moravian exilf s in Savannah, Ga., April 17th, 1734, under the leadership 
of Spangenberg. The several voyages to Savannah led to the acquaint- 
ance of the Wesleys with the Moravians. In 1741, the chief Northern set- 
tlement of Moravians was commenced at Bethlehem, Pa., and in 1766, the 
chief Southern settlement at Salem, North Carolina. 

The Moravian Church throughout the world is governed by a General 
Synod, which meets once in ten years in Herrnhut, Saxony. In the inter- 
vals between General Synods, the Central Board, called the Unity's De- 
partment, residing at Berthelsdorf, near Herrnhut, conducts the general 
affairs of the Church. The separate Provinces, with their Synods, are 
entirely independent in the administration of their own affairs. 

In the United States there are two Provinces, one in the North and 
one in the South, each with its own Provincial Synod and its own Provin- 
cial Elders' Conference. 

At the end of 1892 there were 8,179 Moravians on the Continent of 
Europe ; 5,660 in Great Britain, and 18,930 in the United States : a total of 

The following brethren have served as Bishops of the Unity in the 
Southern District : 

1. JOHN MARTIN GRAFF— Consecrated 1773, died 1782. 

2. JOHN DANIEL KOEHLER, " 1790, 1800. 

3. CHARLES F. REICHEL, " 1801, transferred to Penna., 1811. 

4. JOHN HERBST. " 1811, died 1812. 

5. JACOB VAN VLECK, " 1815, retired 1822. 

6. ANDREW BENADE, " 1822, transferred to Penna. 1829. 

7. JOHN C. BECHLER, " 1835, " " Europe, 1836. 

8. WILLIAM H. VAN VLECK, " 1836, " " Penna., 1849. 

9. JOHN G. HERMAN, " 1846, died 1854. 
TO. GEORGE F. BAHNSON, " i860, " 1869. 

11. EMIL A. DE SCHWEINITZ, " 1874. ' 1879. 





The Moravian Church is divided into the German, the British, and the 
American Province (Northern and Southern Districts), but it conducts its 
mission-work among the heathen as a Unity, under the direction of the 
Mission Board at Berthelsdorf, Saxony. 

The Moravians were not the first to send out missionaries, but they 
were the first Protestants who did this as a Church, and are still the only 
Church with whom the evangelization of the heathen is the chief concern, 

The first Moravian missionaries, Leonard Dober and David Nitschman. 
were sent to the negroes of the Danish Island of St. Thomas in 1732, 
Gradually the work was extended to many of the West India Inlands. The 
Mission in Greenland was commenced in 1733. The first missionary to 
the North American Indians began his work among the Mohicans in 1740. 
The Labrador Mission dates Irom 1770. The first negro converts of the 
Surinam Mission were baptized in 1776. In 1792 the South African Mis- 
sion, from which Bro. George Schmidt had been driven away by the Co- 
lonial Government, was renewed, and has been extending to this day. 

In the year 1849, both the Central American (Mosquito Coast) and the 
Australian Missions were commenced. 

The Himalayan Mission, on the borders of Thibet, which is its ultimate 
aim, was undertaken in 1853. 

In 1867 the Church took charge of a Leper Hospital at Jerusalem. 

In 1878 the Moravians were invited to undertake a work in Demerara. 

In 1885 the Alaskan Mission was commenced. 

In 1891 the first three brethren proceeded to East Central Africa to 
found a mission station north of Lake Nyassa. 

The Moravian Missions have mostly been undertaken among the low- 
est of the heathen. The Greenlander, the Hottentot, the degraded Aus- 
tralian, the loathsome leper, have received the Gospel from the lips of the 
Moravian missionary. The success of the Gospel among these lowliest 
and most neglected of the children of earth has often been very wonderful. 
The Moravian story of Missions is filled with the triumphs of Christ's grace. 

In 1891, there were 21 Moravian Mission Provinces; 120 Stations; 309 
Missionaries; 2014 Native Helpers of various grades; 31,380 Communi- 
cants, and a Lotal of 90,544. 

The present annual expense of the Moravian Missions is about 1360,000. 
It is a very great outlay for a small Church, and the assistance of all friends 
of the Kingdom of God is very welcome. Contributions can be sent to 
Rev. Robert deSchweinitz, Mission Agent at Bethlehem, Penna., or to 
Mr. Iames T. Lineback, Mission Agent at Salem, N. C. 




In 1753, Count Zinzendorf purchased a tract of nearly one hundred 
thousand acres, in Western North Carolina, as the home of a Moravian 
colony. This tract was called "Wachovia," from the name of an estate 
in Austria belonging to the Zinzendorf family. 

The first settlers were a band of twelve young men from Bethlehem, 
Penna. After a toilsome journey of nearly six weeks, they found, on 
reaching the surveyed tract, a deserted cabin. Here they rested, on 
Nov. 17th, 1753, and, calling the place Bethabara, commenced the Lord's 
work in the wilderness. Gradually other Moravian emigrants came, and 
neighboring settlers were also gathered under the preaching *of the Word. 

On June 12th, 1759, the site of Bethania was selected by Bishop Span- 
genberg, and in 1760 Bro. David Bishop became the first minister of this 

In 1766 the town of Salem was commenced, and in 1772 it was made 
the centre of the Moravian colony in Wachovia. 

On November 26th, 1758, the first sermon in what is known as Fried- 
berg, was held ny Bro. L. G. Backhoff, at the house of Adam Spach. On 
March nth, 1759, a church building was consecrated, and in 1772 the con- 
gregation of Friedberg was formally constituted. 

Friedland was commenced, in 1770, with German settlers from the 
State of Maine. In 1775 the church was consecrated, and Bro. Tycho 
Nissen became pastor of the congregation. 

Meetings commenced in the neighborhood of Hope as early as 1758. 
On March 28th, 1780, the church, which is still standing, was consecrated 
and Bro. John C. Fritz became the pastor. It was, at the time, the only 
English congregation in the District. 

In 1801 a Mission was commenced among the Cherokees in the North- 
ern part of Georgia. After the removal of the tribe to the Indian Terri- 
tory the work was continued. It now consists of the two stations. Wood- 
mount and Spring Place, with their out-stations, which, in 1892, were trans- 
ferred to the Northern Moravian Church on account of greater convenience 
of administration. 

On May 24th, 1822, the Colored Moravian Church was instituted, which 
is still in a flourishing condition. 

In the year 1839, a devoted layman, Bro. Zevely, began to visit the 
destitute Blue Ridge country, in Virginia. As a result of his work the 
Mount Bethel station was constituted into a congregation on November 
25th, 1852. 

In 1830 the town of Hope was laid out in Indiana, and in 1846 the town 
of West Salem in Illinois, both of which were afterwards, for convenience, 
transferred to the Northern Board. 

In 1846 the congregation of New Philadelphia was organized. The 
church at this place was dedicated on Oct. 3rst, and Nov. ist, 1851. 


In 1868 the church at Kernersville was built by members of the Fried- 
land congregation residing there, and in 1870 Bro. Isaac Prince became 
the first minister of the congregation. 

In 1880 the congregation at Providence was organized. The church 
was dedicated on July i6th, 1881. 

In 1S87 the congregation at Oak Grove was commenced, and the 
church at that place was dedicated on May 14th, 1888. 

Originally the affairs of the Southern District were directed from Beth- 
lehem, Penna., but, in 1768, Bro. Frederick William Marshall moved to- 
Wachovia in order to act as the agent of the Unity in this District. In 
1785 during the visit of Bishop John Watteville, the son-in-law of Count 
Zinzendorf, the District was formally organized into a province and a Pro- 
vincial Elders' Conference was instituted for the South. A monthly meet- 
ing of the ministers had already begun on Sept. 15th, 1770. 

In 1857, by the re-arrangement of the government of the Unity at the 
General Synod of that year, the supreme control of the local affairs of the 
Southern Church was fully vested in the Provincial Synod. 

In 1877 the Provincial Elders' Conference was incorporated under the 
laws of the State of North Carolina, and the remaining prc>perty of the 
Unity in this District was purchased in behalf of the Southern District, in 
order to form the chief asset in its new Sustentation Fund. 

After a union with the Northern District had been carefully consid- 
ered for a number of years, the project was finally abandoned by mutual 
consent. From January 22d to 25th, 1884, the Provincial Synod met for 
the revision of the Constitution of the Southern Moravian Church, under 
which revised Constitution it is now being administered. 



The name " Salem " was given to the projected central settlement in 
Wachovia by Count Zinzendorf, shortly before his death in 1760. The site 
of the town was selected on February 14th, 1765. The watchword of the 
Moravian Church for that day was very encouraging: "Let thine eyes be 
opened toward this house night and day, even toward the place of which 
thou hast said, My name shall be there." I Kings viii., 29. 

The first log hut was begun on January 6th, 1766, and was occupied by 
eight brethren from Bethabara on February 19th of the same year. This 
house, on Salt Street, afterwards a potter's shop, is still standing. The 
first church of Salem, called the " Gemeinhaus," was dedicated on No- 
vember 13th, 1771. Its site is now occupied by the Main Hall of Salem 
Female Academy. In 1772 the congregation was separated from that of 
Bethabara, and became the seat of superintendence for the District. 


On May 31st, 1791, Salem was visited by President George Washington. 
He was very favorably impressed with the arrangements of the town, and 
was especially interested in the water-works. In this respect and in others 
the settlers of Salem were very enterprising. In 1773 the first Fire Regu- 
lations were made. The water-works were built in 1778. In 1772 the arri- 
val of the bell, weighing 2758 pounds, enabled the town clock to strike the 
hours. In 1785 fire engines were brought from Europe. L-ightning-rods 
were introduced in 1787 ; the paper mill near Salem was finished in 1791. 
Eighty persons were vaccinated in 1802, only three years after the Jenner 
discovery had been accepted in London The first wool-carding machin- 
ery in the State was introduced into Salem in 1815, and, in 1840, after a 
brief experiment in cotton manufacturing, the Fries' Mills commenced 
their successful operation. 

In 1794 the Boys' School House was erected, during the principalship 
of Bro. Christian Thomas Pfohl. 

On June ist, 1798, the corner-stone of the present church building was 
laid. The organ was built in 1799, while the church was being erected. 
The edifice was dedicated on November 9th, t8oo. 

In 1802 the Salem Female Academy was opened as a Boarding School. 

In 1841 the Home Chapel was erected. It was enlarged to its present 
size in 1881. 

In 1849 51 acres were sold to the county of Forsyth, for the new coun- 
ty-town of Winston. The court-house was finished in 1850. In 1856 the 
lease system, by which only Moravians could be holders of real estate in 
Salem, was given up, and the town, under its mayor and council, entered 
fully into the rank of all other incorporated towns and cities of the State. 
It is now supplied with extensive new water-works, and seven miles of 
street mains ; with electric light and street railway ; with steam fire-engine ; 
with a mile of Main street paved with Belgian blocks, (in accordance 
with a vote for a bonded debt of 150,000, held on the 4th day of May, 
1891,) and an excellent street system throughout the rapidly growing city. 

On December 15th, 1861, the new Colored Moravian church was dedi- 
cated. The other Chapels of the congregation were dedicated at the fol- 
lowing dates: East Salem Chapel, December i6th, 1877; Elm Street 
Chapel, October 29th, 1882; the Centreville Chapel, November 29th, 1885; 
Calvary Chapel, in Winston, December 15th, 1889, and Christ Chapel, in 
West Salem, April 9th, 1893. 

In connection with the Salem congregation, the following Houses are 
maintained, under the rules of the Church : A Sisters' House for unmar- 
ried women, and a Widows' House. A committee of ladies maintains a 
Home for women, especially the aged, and children. 

The following Societies exist in 1893 : 

1. The Juvenile Missionary Society. 

2. The Ladies' Missionary Society. 

3. The " Helping Hand." 

4. The Young Men's Missionary Society. 

5. The Society for the Aid of the Poor of the Congregation. 


6. The Christian Endeavor. 

7. The Mite Society. 

<S. The " Wayside Workers." 

At the end of 1892 there were 893 communicants, 77 non-communi- 
cants and 300 children connecte>: with the Salem Home congreo:ation and 
its Chapels. There were 1500 teachers and scholars eiirulled in the six 
Sunday Schools of the congregation. 

The following is a list of the Pastors of Salem congregition : 

1. PAUL TIERSCH 1772-1774. 

2. JOHN MARTIN GRAFF 1774-17S2. 

3. JOHN F. PETER 1782-1783. 


5. CHRISTIAN BENZIEN 1800— 1?02. 

6. CHARLES G. REICHEL 1802— 1811. 

7. JOHN HERBST 1811-1812. 

8. SIMON PETER 1S12— 1S12. 

9. JACOB VAN VLECK 1812— 1S22. 

10. ANDREW BENADE 1822-1829. 

11. G.BENJAMIN REICHEL 1829— 1833. 

12. JOHN C. BECHLER 1833— 1836. 


14. GEORGE F. BAHNSON 1849— 1858. 

15. FRANCIS R. HOLLAND 1858-1864. 

16. GEORGE F. BAHNSON 1S64-1869. 

17. ALBERT L. OERTER 1869-1877. 


Assistants— JOHN F. McCUlSTON 1886— 




The general principles of Moravian worship are laid down by General 
Synod. Under these general rules a large degree of liberty is allowed to 
the separate congregations in their respective form, and arrangements. 

In addition to the usual order of Sunday and week-day worship, the 
Salem church has the following special services : — 

lufant Baptisms ^VQ administered before the Sunday morning sermon, 
or in the children's homes. 

Confirmaiio7is and Adult Baptisms take place at any Communion, and 
especially on Palm Sunday. 

Holy Commimio7i is celebrated on the first Sunday of the year ; on the 
first Sunday in Lent ; on Maundy Thursday in the Holy Week ; on Whit- 
Sunday ; on the first Sunday in July ; on the Sunday nearest the r3th of 
August ; on the first Sunday of October ; on the Sunday nearest the 13th 
of November ; and on the annual covenant days of the several Classes of 
the congregation. The Communion is preceded by a Preparatory meet- 
ing on the previous Friday evening. 


The " Christian Year," commencing with the first Sunday in Advent, is 
carefully observed. 

The Christmas Services begin- on Christmas Eve with a meeting at 4>^ 
P. M. for little children, and at 7//^ P. M for the older congregation. The 
Christmas Liturgy is sung and the sermon preached on Christmas morning. 

On New Years Eve a service for children is held at P. M., the 
History of the Year, called the Memorabilia, is read at 8 P. M , and the 
year is solemnly closed with a watch-service, beginning at wYz P. M. 

During the LenleJi Season special services are held in order to impress 
upon the minds of all the preciousness of the sufferings and death of our 
blessed Lord. On Palm Sunday the congregation gathers to hear the Acts 
and Words of our Saviour on that day. They are read in a service inter- 
spersed with hymns. The same order is lollowed on the successive days 
of the week until Good Friday evening. Oil Saturday (Easter Eve) at 
2}4. p. M. the congregation commemorates the blessed rest which Christ 
has secured for all his people by his own rest in the grave. On Easter 
morning, shortly before sunrise, the congregation meets at the church- 
door to celebrate the resurrection of Her Lord by a united confession of 
faith, which is afterwards concluded on the graveyard among the graves 
of Christ's departed people. 

The festivals oi Ascension, Whitsuntide and Trinity are also observed. 

Special memorial days are celebrated as follows : The Sunday near- 
est August 13th, in view of the gracious outpouring of the Holy Spirit, 
whereby the Moravian Church was renewed on August 13th, 1727 ; the 
Sunday nearest November 13th, which is the congregation anniversary. 

The congregation is divided into Classes. The underlying idea of the 
Classes is that each Class, by its social situation in life, needs to have 
a special view of its duties and encouragements in the light of the Sa- 
viour's merits and example, and that all the members of the Class are 
ihus to be bound more closely and kindly together. The Class Day of the 
Widows falls on the Sunday nearest April 30th ; that of the Unmarried 
Women on the Sunday nearest May 4th ; that of the Unmarried Men on 
the Sunday nearest August 29th, and that of the Married People and Wid- 
owers on the Sunday nearest September 7th. The special services con- 
nected with these Class days consist of a Preparatory meeting on the pre- 
\ious Saturday evening; a Festal service on the morning and a lovefeast 
and communion in the afternoon of the covenant anniversary Sunday. 

After the practice of the Apostles the Moravian Church observes love- 
fcfasts, in which a simple meal is partaken of all together^ in token of the 
unity of Christ's family. The service, consists of anthems, hymns, prayer 
and discourse. It is a private service, but is open to communicants of 
other Churches who have been invited by the Pastor. The ordinary love- 
feasts of the year are the Christmas Eve Lovefeast, the Easter Eve Love- 
feast, the Lovefeast on the Sunday nearest August 13th, the Anniversary 
Lovefeast on the Sunday nearest November 13th, and the lovefeasts on the 
several Class Days. 


Funerals are carefully solemnized. The death of the member is an- 
nounced by three chorals, played by the church band from the church 
spire. The first and third tunes are alwrys the same : i. e. Tune 151 A, 

' ' A pilgrim us preceding, 

Departs unto his home," , . 


" Lord, when I am departing, 
Depart thou not from me." 

The second tune indicates the class to which the departed one has be- 
longed, i. e., for married brethren, T. 83 D : 

"Jesus ne'er forsaketh me." 

For married sisters, T. 79 A : 

" His plea amid deep sighing, 
Mid bitter tears and crying, 
My soul with peace hath blest." 

For widowers, T. 132 A : 

" His goodness and his mercies ail 
Will follow me forever." 

For widows, T. 149 A : 

" Lift thy heart, O weary soul. 
To the heavenly mansion. ' 

For unmarried brethren, T. 185 A: 

" Faithful Lord, my only joy and pleasure." 

Fur unmarried sisters, T. 37 A : 

"My happy lot is here, 
The Lamb to follow." 

Fur older boys, T. 23 : 

"Jesus' grace me here possessing, 
Early with his peace me blessing." 

For older girls, T. 14, A : 

" Lord Jesus, let thy grace abound, 
Me onward still direct." 

For Httle boys, T. 39, A : 

" The Lord to his fold little children inviteth." 

For little girls, T. 82 D: 

" Should not I for gladness leap. 
Led by Jesus as his sheep." 

At the funeral a memoir of the departed is communicated, and at the 
grave the soft music of the church band among the deep-green firs tells 
of a good soldier gone home to be with Christ. 

The beautiful "God's Acre," in which the dead lie under recumbent 
stones of simple form and uniform size, was consecrated on June 6th, 1771, 


when a young brother, John Birkhead was laid to rest beside one of the 
central firs. 

As the expenses of the congregation are, in part, defrayed by a Church 
Fund, the congregation takes the opportunity of contributing the more 
liberally to the monthly collections, which are gathered on the first 
Sunday morning and evening of the month, as follows: 


Missions among the Heathen. 


Provincial Collection. 


Bohemian and Moravian Missions. 


Home Missions. 


Bible Collection. 




Bohemian and Moravian Missions. 


Missions among the Heathen. 




Home Missions. 


Theological Seminary. 


For the Poor of the Congregation. 


' 'And as many as walk accordhig to this rule, peace be on them 
and mercy, and up07i the Israel of God^ — Gal. vi., i6.